Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS)
Overview of the BDS laboratory.
Various components and applications in the BDS laboratory.
Home-made dielectric and impedance broadband spectrometers from 10-5 Hz to 20 GHz based on the following components:
· Analyzers: Mod. HP4284A; Lock-in Amplifier Mod. 5210 EG&G; HP4294A and HP E4991A; Alpha-A high-performance modular measurement; E5071C Network Analyser
· Cryogenic systems: Cryostat system, Solarton mod. 129610A, for measurements at temperatures down to -195°C and under vacuum; Precision Cryo-thermostat for measurements in the temperature range from -195 to +450°C. This system is equipped with transmission measuring cells from 20 Hz to 10 MHz and coaxial line reflection cells from 1 MHz to 20 GHz.
Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES)
ICP-AES Spectrometers and their components.
Multi-element analysis (left) and sample preparation system (right).
· Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometers (ICP-AES Spectroflame Modula and ICP Spectro Arcos EOP) for the sequential and simultaneous analysis of elements with concentration ranges 0-800 ppm and 0-800 ppb, equipped with a Meinhard nebulizer for analyses in the ppm range and a home-made ultrasonic nebulizer for analyses in the ppb range.
· Microwave Sample Preparation System.
Multichannel potentiostat/galvanostat and ring-disk electrode system (left); potentiostat/galvanostats mod. 263A and 273 (right).
· Potentiostat/galvanostat Mod. 263A (Princeton Applied Research).
· Potentiostat/galvanostat Mod. 273 (Princeton Applied Research).
· Quartz crystal analyzer Mod. QCA917.
· Rotating electrode mod. EDI 101 and control unit (Radiometer Analytical).
· Multichannel potentiostat/galvanostat mod. VSP (BioLogic).
· Ring-disk electrode system mod. 636 (Princeton Applied Research).
Fuel Cell, Battery, Capacitor and Sensor Testing
Fuel cell test system (left); high-temperature setup (right)
·Home-made fuel cell test system to study the performance of single fuel cells fed with either hydrogen or pure and solutions of liquid fuels. The measurements are carried out varying the composition of reagents, temperature, pressure and electric load. High-temperature setup allows to collect measurement up to a cell temperature of 280°C.
·Battery test system.
Solar Cell Testing
FT-Raman spectrometer (left) and FT-IR Spectrometer (right).
Confocal Micro-Raman Laser spectrometer.
· Spectrometer FT-IR Nicolet Nexus for measurements in the medium and far infrared (MIR and FIR).
· Spectrometer FT-Raman Nicolet Nexus for FT-Raman measurements in the frequency range 4000 cm-1 - 50 cm-1.
· Home-made conventional Raman laser spectrometer constituted of: a Spectra Physics Stabilite 2017 Argon ion Laser; a CW Ti:Sapphire mod. 3900S laser; a Jasco mod. R300 monochromator.
· Confocal Micro-Raman Laser Horiba Jobin Yvon consisting of a HR250 monochromator, a CCD detector mod. Symphony cooled with liquid N2 and a confocal microscope mod. FIBMIC-FE-BXFM.
Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Analysis
High-resolution TG module.
MDSC module (left) and DMA module (right).
· Dynamic Mechanic Analyzer (DMA), operating in the temperature range from -150 to +500 °C and in the frequency range 0.01-200Hz. The deformation amplitude varies in the range 0.5-10000 micrometers.
· MDSC module.
· High-resolution TG module.
Powder X-ray Diffractometer
Hot-pressing system (left); home-made induction furnace (centre); optical microscope (right).
Ar/N2 dry box (left) and home-made dry box (right).
Spin coater and turbo evaporator/sputtering systems (left) and planetary ball mill (right).
· Planetary ball mill for the preparation of nanopowders.
· Optical microscope with polarized light.
· Hot-pressing system.
· Dry box operating under Ar/N2 atmosphere.
· Spin Coater and Turbo Evaporator/Sputtering system equipped with a carbon evaporation source, a filament evaporation source, tungsten basket crucibles, molybdenum boats, film thickness monitor module (FTM), and metal targets for sputtering.
· Home-made induction furnace for high temperature treatments working under controlled atmospheres, pressures (from 10-3 to 2 bar) and temperatures (from 25 to 2000 °C).
· Probe Sonicator.
· Rotoviscosimeter (mod. Haake RV 20, mounting a CV 100 measurement head) for the detemination of the mechanical properties of liquid samples.
· CAD Dispenser (mod. CAM/ALOT 606) for the preparation of thin films from liquid precursors.
Single fuel cell in high-temperature setup (left); battery test system (right)
Rotoviscosimeter (left) and CAD dispenser (right).
Solar simulator (left) and instrument for the determination of the quantum efficiency of a solar cell (right).
· Solar Simulator connected to additional instrumentations for the determination of the polarization curve of solar cells.
· Instrument for the determination of the quantum efficiency of solar cells
· Powder X-ray diffractometer (mod. eXplorer, GNR analytical) for the structural study of solid samples both in transmittance and in reflectance, mounting a vertical gonio-diffractometer with 2 independent axis, theta/2theta geometry.